sergei-akulich-heLWtuAN3c-unsplash-1200x675.jpg

Disclaimer: Part of our mission is to always present the latest cannabinoid research; however, none of this is intended to represent the safety or efficacy of our products. These statements and our products have not been evaluated by the FDA, and our products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease. You should consult your physician or other health care professional before taking CBD to determine if it is right for your needs.

Photo by Sergei Akulich on Unsplash

CBD: We know it comes from cannabis, but how and why is it made? 

Written by: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D.

In this article, we will discuss the basic physiology behind the making of cannabidiol (CBD) and some theorized reasons why plants of the cannabis family, like hemp and marijuana, might produce phytocannabinoids like CBD.  

How does Cannabis Sativa L. Produce CBD? 

When referring to products within the cannabis industry, particularly those containing cannabidiol (CBD), we typically classify them as being either hemp or marijuana-derived. Recent evidence suggests that there are distinct genetic differences between hemp and marijuana (Sawler 2015), but due to generations of select cultivation and crossbreeding there is not enough of a difference to classify them as different plants. Currently, both hemp and marijuana are classified as the same plant Cannabis Sativa L., because of this, the only clear distinction between hemp and marijuana is that based on legality.

Hemp, of course, is classified within the United States as having less than 0.3% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and anything with more than 0.3% THC is classified as marijuana. The reason hemp and marijuana are so sought after is for their production of the compounds known as phytocannabinoids, or more commonly referred to as cannabinoids. Hemp is sought after for its high CBD content, while marijuana is most desired for its high production of THC. The endocannabinoid system, on which these compounds act, is actually so named because it was first discovered through receptors in the central nervous system interacting with THC.  

Cannabidiol, also known more commonly as CBD, is one of more than 100 identified phytocannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant Cannabis Sativa L. (Russo 2011). The majority of the active components in cannabis products are produced in structures called trichomes in the plant (Russo 2011). In these trichomes, the first step in producing CBD is the creation of cannabigerolic-acid (CBGA) (Thomas 2016). The cannabinoid CBGA is a precursor to the formation of multiple cannabinoids, including CBD, THC, cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG) (Thomas 2016). The formation of CBGA begins with building blocks of Coenzyme A and a fatty acid. The use of fatty acids in the production of cannabinoids is a primary reason why cannabinoids like CBD are fat-soluble. Following multiple intermediate steps, CBGA is eventually derived from olivetolic acid and geranyl pyrophosphate (Thomas 2016). Side note: the “ger” in cannabigerolic-acid comes from the “ger” in geranyl pyrophosphate. 

As stated previously, CBGA can then be used for the eventual formation of CBD. First, CBGA is converted to the acidic form of CBD, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). This process is performed by CBDA synthase (Taura 2007, Thomas 2016).  However, the cannabinoid CBDA is not yet the CBD that we all know and love. For CBD to be produced the next step that must occur is the chemical decarboxylation of CBDA. For those of you not well versed in the terminology of chemistry, decarboxylation simply refers to the removal of CO2 from CBDA. Once this CO2 is removed, which is typically done through the use of heat, CBD has now been formed (Hartsel 2016). It would make sense then that CBD, does not naturally occur in abundantly high quantities of either marijuana or hemp, but rather is found as the precursor CBDA. This is why the cannabis industry has developed effective ways, like supercritical CO2 extraction, to efficiently extract and decarboxylate cannabinoids like CBD in highly concentrated quantities.  

The CBD synthesis process within cannabis can be seen in the figure below in it’s entirety.

Why does Cannabis Sativa L. produce cannabinoids like CBD? 

There are mixed schools of thought on why Cannabis Sativa L. produces cannabinoids. One thought is that the cannabis plant produces the active components as a natural defense mechanism against parasites pests and potential predators.  However, many of the insects that would threaten the plant are devoid of an endocannabinoid system, and thus would be immune to any potential negative effects. Another school of thought is that Cannabis Sativa L. produces these cannabinoids to prevent mammalian herbivores and omnivores from eating it; however, while these mammals do possess an endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids in their raw, acidic form are not physiologically active. Thus, similarly to insects, these mammals would not feel any effects from these cannabinoids and would have no reason to be deterred from eating the plant. So why then does cannabis produce these cannabinoids?  

 If you were to say that cannabinoids are produced by the cannabis plant to appease us, the “human overlords”. Well, you might actually be right… among biologists studying the Cannabis Sativa L. plant itself, this is one of the more popular theories. The relationship between humans and cannabis has existed for thousands of years (Sawler 2015). This has spurred the formation of a symbiotic relationship between humans and the plant. Humans grow and cultivate cannabis for its therapeutic effects, ensuring the survival of the cannabis plant at the same time.  Scientists believe that due to the longterm cultivation and selective breeding of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant, we have naturally encouraged the plant to produce more cannabinoids over time, through the increased gene expression of the enzymes necessary to create the cannabinoids like CBD, THC, and CBGA. Inadvertently because of these generations of selective breeding for high cannabinoid content scientists are still unsure as to why the cannabis plant produces cannabinoids. 

Looking for more 6° Wellness Content? 

Website: www.sixdegreeswellness.com 

Instagram: @6degreeswellness

Podcast: CBD Deep Dive anchor.fm/6degrees 

Jonny Lisano, Ph.D

JONNY LISANO, Ph.D.

Jonny received his Ph.D. from the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) in Exercise Physiology.  During his time at (UNC) he and his advisor established the first cannabis and exercise performance laboratory in the nation.  Jonny’s early research pertaining to cannabis focused on the assessment of how the long-term use of cannabis products in physically active individuals affected parameters of overall health and exercise performance.  As he progressed into the field of cannabis research his focused shifted from exercise performance to that of how CBD affects immune function in physically active individuals who are using cannabis products.

Jonny has always been an advocate for living a healthy lifestyle and believes CBD can be an integral part of that.  His focus at 6° Wellness is to provide and explain the most current scientific knowledge pertaining to cannabis in a way everyone can understand, and providing recommendations on how the products we offer can fit into your lifestyle.

In his free time Jonny enjoys training for competitive obstacle course races, hiking the beautiful Colorado backcountry, and partaking in the occasional beer from the local craft beer scene.


sixdegreesextract-1200x800.jpg

Disclaimer: Part of our mission is to always present the latest cannabinoid research; however, none of this is intended to represent the safety or efficacy of our products. These statements and our products have not been evaluated by the FDA, and our products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease. You should consult your physician or other health care professional before taking CBD to determine if it is right for your needs.

Photo Credit: Max Seigal

What are some ways that you can use 6° Wellness’ full spectrum 600 mg hemp extract?

Have you recently purchased or have been contemplating buying 6° Wellness’ full spectrum 600 mg hemp extract, but aren’t sure how to use CBD oil. In this article we will discuss some of 6° Wellness’ favorite ways to incorporate our 600 mg oil into our daily life.  

Written by: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D. 

The Tried and True: Oral Tincture

One of the most popular ways to use 6° Wellness CBD oil is as an oral tincture. If you are new to using CBD you might ask, “What is a tincture?”. Well, that is a great question. In general, a tincture is a plant concentrate that contains active ingredients that are suspended in oil and are taken orally by dispensing the desired amount into your mouth. The 6° Wellness 600 mg extract is derived from hemp, contains active ingredients like phytocannabinoids (such as CBD) and terpenes, and is suspended in MCT oil. 

To use 6° Wellness oil extracts as an oral tincture simply fill the pre-marked dropper to your desired dose, dispense the oil under your tongue and just let it naturally dissolve. Repeat as necessary if your desired dose is larger than 10 mg, or 1 mL. The MCT oil that our extract is suspended in has a very warming taste and should not have any bitter off taste. 

Coffee

If you’re like me, your morning cup of coffee helps jumpstart your day each and every morning and gives you the energy boost you need to get out the door and tackle the day ahead.  One of my personal favorite ways to consume my 6° Wellness CBD oil is as a part of my morning coffee; however, keep in mind that coffee consists mainly of water. Water and oil won’t naturally mix together. If you’re going to add your CBD oil to your morning cup o’ Joe, I’d suggest first dissolving your CBD in small amount of cream, give it a quick blast of heat in the microwave, quickly stir and then add it to your coffee.  Or, if you’re on the go you can simply add your CBD oil straight into your latte from your favorite coffee shop!

Tea 

Not a coffee person, but still like a warm dose of caffeine during your day? Try adding your CBD oil to a cozy, warm cup of tea. Just remember, tea like coffee, consists of mostly water. To get your CBD oil to fully dissolve we suggest using a little bit of cream to help. 

Smoothie

Whether you’re on the go or looking for an easy post workout meal, a smoothie is a fantastic way to consume your 6° Wellness CBD oil. Simply add in your desired amount of oil with your favorite smoothie ingredients and blend.  As we’ve discussed in a previous blog post, we suggest consuming your CBD oil with food containing fats. Research has shown that not only will this increase your absorption of CBD but also increase the bioavailability! You can read more on that here. Our suggestion to easily and deliciously increase the fat content of your smoothie is to add in a scoop of your favorite nut butter (peanut, almond, etc.).

Oatmeal

If you’re looking for for a heartier and warmer meal option to consume your CBD oil try adding it to your bowl of oatmeal. We recommend preparing your oatmeal exactly how you normally would and just before you eat it stir in your desired amount of CBD oil. Not only will you be getting a delicious bowl of oatmeal full of great nutrients and complex carbs that will keep you full, but you’ll also be getting your CBD. I’d call that two birds with one stone!

Protein Pudding

If you haven’t heard of Musclelicious Foods’ protein puddings, you don’t know what you’re missing out on. Not only are they a stand-up family run operation, but the owners only make their products using the highest quality ingredients (just like 6° Wellness). Their puddings are delicious and come in a variety of flavors, and now some of their puddings come with 6° Wellness CBD oil already mixed in! Their CBD protein puddings have a little over 12 mg of CBD in every cup! If that’s not enough for you you can always mix in more 6° Wellness CBD oil yourself. 

Salad Dressing

If you like to make your own salad dressings, this is a great opportunity to add a fun, new way to use you 6° Wellness CBD oil. Make your dressing as you usually would and just add in your desired amount of CBD oil.  Just keep in mind that if you make your homemade dressing in large batches that you plan to use over time, that oils other than MCT oil may degrade your CBD over time. Read more about it here in a previous blog post, where we discuss why MCT oil is the best oil for CBD extracts. 

Summary

It just goes to show that there are multiple ways to consume your 600 mg CBD oil from 6° Wellness. Whether its as a part of your morning coffee, post workout smoothie or part of your salad; you don’t have to limit yourself to using it only as a tincture (although there is nothing wrong with using as a tincture). Have fun with your CBD and experiment using it in different ways! The more ways you learn to use your CBD products the easier it will be to make it a part of your daily lifestyle. 

What are some of your favorite ways to use your CBD oil? Let us know in the comments section below. Who knows, maybe we’ll feature your favorite method in a future blog post or podcast?!

Looking for more 6° Wellness Content? 

Website: www.sixdegreeswellness.com 

Instagram: @6degreeswellness

Podcast: CBD Deep Dive anchor.fm/6degrees 

Jonny Lisano, Ph.D

JONNY LISANO, Ph.D.

Jonny received his Ph.D. from the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) in Exercise Physiology.  During his time at (UNC) he and his advisor established the first cannabis and exercise performance laboratory in the nation.  Jonny’s early research pertaining to cannabis focused on the assessment of how the long-term use of cannabis products in physically active individuals affected parameters of overall health and exercise performance.  As he progressed into the field of cannabis research his focused shifted from exercise performance to that of how CBD affects immune function in physically active individuals who are using cannabis products.

Jonny has always been an advocate for living a healthy lifestyle and believes CBD can be an integral part of that.  His focus at 6° Wellness is to provide and explain the most current scientific knowledge pertaining to cannabis in a way everyone can understand, and providing recommendations on how the products we offer can fit into your lifestyle.

In his free time Jonny enjoys training for competitive obstacle course races, hiking the beautiful Colorado backcountry, and partaking in the occasional beer from the local craft beer scene.


cbdsmoothie-1200x800.png

Disclaimer: Part of our mission is to always present the latest cannabinoid research; however, none of this is intended to represent the safety or efficacy of our products. These statements and our products have not been evaluated by the FDA, and our products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease. You should consult your physician or other health care professional before taking CBD to determine if it is right for your needs.

Should I take my CBD on an empty stomach or with food?

In this article we answer the questions of’ “Does my body absorb CBD extract differently if I consume it on an empty stomach or with food?” and, “If there is a difference, which way is better?” using findings from a recent scientific study assessing the pharmacokinetics of CBD consumed in a fed or fasted state. 

Written by: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D. 

The research on how cannabidiol (CBD) and the other active components in marijuana and hemp products is growing; however, the research available on how to consume CBD products is still very limited. One topic that has frequently come up in conversations that I have had is, “Does it matter if I consume my CBD products on an empty stomach, or should I take it with food?”. Well, until now the research available has not provided a clear answer to this question.  A recent study from the University of Minnesota sought to provide novel insight in this area by assessing the pharmacokinetics of orally ingested purified CBD when consumed in a fasted or fed state. 

The Basics of Pharmacokinetics: 

However, before we dive into the results of this study let’s first briefly discuss what the field of pharmacokinetics is and some key terms used in research within this content area.  Putting it very simply, pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology that seeks to describe the movement and distribution of drugs or compounds throughout the body. Within the realm of pharmacokinetics there are a few key terms that are often used to describe and compare the movement of these drugs and compounds throughout the body.  

  • Maximum concentration (Cmax): This is the maximum concentration of the drug/compound (in this case CBD) observed in the blood plasma following administration. This one is pretty intuitive, the higher the maximum concentration the more of that compound there is in the blood.  
  • Time to maximum concentration (Tmax): This is the time it takes for the compound to reach maximum concentration following administration. Less time to maximal concentration means the quicker that compound reached peak concentration in the blood.
  • Area-under-the-curve (AUC): in order to determine this variable multiple data points are needed. These data points are collected over regular intervals in the hours following administration of the drug or compound. The data points are then graphed to determine the total drug/compound exposure over the monitored time period. An example of this can be seen in Figure 1.  As can be seen in Figure 1, the AUC for Naringenin is greater than that of Hesperitin over the monitored 24-hour period. A greater AUC means that there’s greater exposure to that drug/compound. So, in this example The drug Naringenin would have greater exposure within the body compared to Hesperitin.  

Figure 1: Area Under the Curve Example

Obtained from Science Direct 

  • Volume of distribution (Vd): This is a very complex and abstract concept when discussing pharmacokinetics; but to put it simply, the volume of distribution is a ratio between the amount of compound taken and the concentration of that compound within the plasma.  Based on this ratio, this will give us an indication of how extensively a compound is distributed throughout the rest of the body compared to the plasma. A high volume of distribution means that a compound is going to be distributed more to the tissues and not stay in the plasma, while a low volume of distribution means that the compound will stay localized in the plasma.
  • Plasma oral clearance (PC): This parameter is used to describe the volume of plasma that the compound is completely removed from per unit of time, typically expressed in hours.  This will tell you how quickly the compound is removed from the plasma. A higher plasma oral clearance means quicker removal.  

Alright, I know that was a lot of information that you just went through on the basics of pharmacokinetics, but a good understanding of those few terms will help you better understand the results of this study.

Study Results:

The study had a total of eight participants suffering from difficult to control epilepsy. These participants were recruited to participate in two separate testing conditions by consuming a specific amount of purified CBD while fasted state or with food.  For both conditions participants arrived 10-hours fasted and had resting blood samples taken prior to either consuming 300mg of 99% pure CBD with water (fasted) or consuming 300mg of CBD with water and a high-fat breakfast (fed) of 840-860 calories (500-600 of the calories coming from fat).  These participant’s blood was then taken at 0.5, 1, 2, 2.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours post CBD consumption and analyzed for plasma concentration of CBD. All eight participants went through both trial conditions separated by roughly 2-weeks between trials. In Figure 2 below you can see the average concentrations of CBD in the plasma over that 72-hour period. The red line represents the results from the fed trial while the darker line represents the fasted trial. 

Figure 2: Pharmacokinetic Graph of Consuming CBD in a Fasted or Fed State

In fed state participants had demonstrated a significantly greater maximum concentration (Cmax) than when they consumed their CBD in the fasted state.  In both trials the time to maximal concentration (Tmax) varied between 1 to 6-hours, but on average participants reached Tmax quicker in the fed trial. The fed trial had an average time to maximal concentration of 2.4-hours compared to 3.2-hours in the fasted state. These results show that not only did participants in the fed trial reach a higher Cmax but also had a quicker Tmax as well. 

Intuitively, you might look at Figure 2 and think, “Well clearly the area under the curve (AUC) in the fed state is greater than that of the fasted state.” Guess what? You’d be correct! Statistically the AUC was significantly greater in the fed state.  This means that over the monitored 72-hour period that participants who consumed their CBD with food had greater exposure to CBD than when they only consumed CBD with water. Even though they took the exact same amount of purified CBD (300mg) in the fed state as they did in the fasted state!  

The volume of distribution was considered high in both the fasted and fed trials; however, the volume of distribution was greater in fasted participants. While this may not sound like a desirable result for the fed condition, both conditions still had high volumes of distribution! This means that regardless of the method of ingestion, when CBD is absorbed by the bloodstream it is highly dispersed to your tissues and does not remain in the blood. That is good, because we want CBD to be able to interact with the endocannabinoid system of our body. Also, when assessing the plasma oral clearance, fed individuals had a significantly lower clearance rate than fasted individuals. One explanation the researchers offer for why we see these effects on the volume of distribution is that consuming CBD with food is actually increasing the bioavailability of CBD! Which is a very good thing. 

Obviously this study did not take into account the co-ingestion of CBD with lower fat content meals, and I’m not telling you to go out and consume 70 grams of fat every time you take your CBD, but results from this study do indicate that consuming CBD with a meal containing fat increases both the absorption and bioavailability of CBD in the body. Potentially increasing the effectiveness of your CBD.  So, I’ll leave you with this, consuming CBD with a meal containing fats may get you more bang for your CBD buck.  

Looking for more 6° Wellness Content? 

Website: www.sixdegreeswellness.com 

Instagram: @6degreeswellness

Podcast: CBD Deep Dive anchor.fm/6degrees 

Jonny Lisano, Ph.D

JONNY LISANO, Ph.D.

Jonny received his Ph.D. from the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) in Exercise Physiology.  During his time at (UNC) he and his advisor established the first cannabis and exercise performance laboratory in the nation.  Jonny’s early research pertaining to cannabis focused on the assessment of how the long-term use of cannabis products in physically active individuals affected parameters of overall health and exercise performance.  As he progressed into the field of cannabis research his focused shifted from exercise performance to that of how CBD affects immune function in physically active individuals who are using cannabis products.

Jonny has always been an advocate for living a healthy lifestyle and believes CBD can be an integral part of that.  His focus at 6° Wellness is to provide and explain the most current scientific knowledge pertaining to cannabis in a way everyone can understand, and providing recommendations on how the products we offer can fit into your lifestyle.

In his free time Jonny enjoys training for competitive obstacle course races, hiking the beautiful Colorado backcountry, and partaking in the occasional beer from the local craft beer scene.


chris-lawton-5IHz5WhosQE-unsplash-1200x800.jpg

Disclaimer: Part of our mission is to always present the latest cannabinoid research; however, none of this is intended to represent the safety or efficacy of our products. These statements and our products have not been evaluated by the FDA, and our products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease. You should consult your physician or other health care professional before taking CBD to determine if it is right for your needs.

Will the quality of my CBD extract change over time?

Written by: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D.

If you currently use CBD products, a question that may have crossed your mind (or maybe not!), is what is the shelf life of these products? Can the content of your CBD hemp extract really change over time? With the approval of the 2018 Farm Bill in the United States, there has been a boom of cultivation, sale, and consumption of cannabidiol (CBD) products derived from industrial hemp,   but these products are not subject to regulation for their content and quality by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As a consumer, you must take it upon yourself to understand the quality and stability of these products over time. We’re here to help you with that. 

First, let us review the main active components in hemp extracts. Cannabinoids, like CBD and small amounts of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), are the most well-known active ingredients in hemp. Terpenes are the other active ingredients that have been receiving attention as of late. We know cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system within the human body to produce their effects, but what purpose do the terpenes serve? In the cannabis plant, terpenes are believed to act as a defense system, deterring predators by producing an undesirable bitter taste (Russo & Marcu 2017). However, recently there is growing evidence that these terpene compounds can produce physiological effects in humans as well (Gallily et al. 2018)

Does the content of the cannabinoids and terpenes change over time?  The short answer to this question is yes.  Just like any other biological substance we consume, hemp and cannabis extracts change over time, but what specifically is changing and what are some of the key factors driving these changes? 

What is changing in these products?

THC: We know THC isn’t the major cannabinoid we are concerned with when it comes to hemp extracts, but it is still important to discuss, especially if you use other cannabis products higher in THC. The THC molecule is relatively unstable and has the propensity to react with other elements leading to THC breakdown if not properly stored.  A 2012 study found that the THC concentration in oil steadily decreased over time. Over a four-year period, a loss of 84-90% of its initial THC content occurred, losing on average 21-23% of its THC content per year (Trofin et al. 2012). Depending on how you feel about THC, this may be either a desirable or undesirable trait of long-term storage of cannabis products.  But what about CBD, the main cannabinoid we are concerned about with hemp extracts?

CBD: Similar to THC, the CBD content in oil changes over time.  In products containing 15-16% CBD, it was observed that 11% of the initial CBD was lost over the first year, with an average loss of 2.76% of total CBD every three months (Trofin et al. 2012). However, unlike THC which decreased 84-90% of its initial content over 4-years, CBD only lost 40% of its initial content over that same 4-year span (Trofin et al. 2012).  This demonstrates that while CBD content does decrease over time, it occurs at a much slower rate than THC.

CBN: Depending on how familiar you are with cannabis products, you may or may not have heard about CBN, also known as cannabinol. CBN is typically found in higher concentrations of aged cannabis products as it is a product of THC breakdown (Trofin et al. 2012).  While not as potent as THC, CBN does still have moderate intoxicating effects (Casajuana Koguel et al. 2018).  It has been observed that a steady decrease in THC concentration was offset by a steady increase in CBN concentration (Trofin et al. 2012). However, there is not a 1:1 conversion relationship of THC to CBN, as THC can be degraded into other byproducts other than CBN (Trofin et al. 2012)

Terpenes: Terpenes, as discussed earlier, are another active component found within hemp extracts. In a study assessing the content and stability of hemp oils distributed within the United Kingdom,  it was found that the terpene content was susceptible to change in the presence of light (Pavlovic et al. 2018).  Limiting exposure to light is an important factor to consider in the storage of your hemp extract products.  There is a growing amount of evidence that CBD and the other active compounds in hemp extract work best together producing what’s referred to as the ‘entourage effect’. Proper storage of your product is essential (Calvi et al. 2018, Galilly et al. 2018)!

What is causing these changes?

Light Exposure: Light is one of the environmental conditions that can affect the content of your product. Light has the capacity to interact with reactive oxygen causing photooxidation of cannabinoids and terpenes alike (Trofin et al. 2012, Pavlovic et al. 2018).  This is why we recommend you store your hemp extract in a place that will not receive direct light exposure.   

Air Exposure: The second component necessary for photooxidation is air.  Make sure that whenever you finish using your 6° Wellness products that you tightly secure the lid back on to minimize air exposure.  However, oxidation products can come from more than just air. The breakdown of fats found within oils also has the same effect.

Type of Oil: Not all oil products are created equally when concerning the stability of your cannabis products.  In the study assessing the long-term stability of CBD oil extracts from the United Kingdom, there were a total of 15 different samples collected and tested. Of those 15 products, six were suspended in olive oil, eight were suspended in hemp seed oil and one was suspended in MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oil.  The sample suspended in MCT oil was the only product found to have little, if any, fat oxidation products (Pavlovic et al. 2018). This means that suspending hemp extract in MCT oil will preserve quality by preventing the formation of oxidizing products.  

I know as you read that you just asked, “Well, are 6° Wellness products suspended in MCT oil?”. The answer to that question is a resounding, “YES!”. 

As a consumer, you not only deserve to have the best products but also the assurance that the products will be consistent across its use period.  To maximize the potential of your 6° Wellness products, we recommend you keep them stored in a cool, dry place that does not receive direct sunlight.  Furthermore, the final aspect of product quality assurance relies on you.  

As we discussed previously the content of hemp extract oils can change over time. While you might think it’s more cost effective to purchase larger hemp extract products, always keep in mind how long it will take you to use the entirety of the product.  For example, say you use 20mg of extract a day. The 600mg bottle offered at 6° Wellness would last you a total of 30-days. However, if you wanted to buy in bulk a 6,000mg bottle would last you at that same dose for 300-days. By the end of that 300-day period approximately 10% of the initial CBD concentration would be lost and instead of receiving 20mg on that final dose you’d receive 18mg.  While that is not a drastic change, we still want you to get the most out of our products. It’s similar to buying any other food item. 

We recommend buying enough product to last you 1-3 months based on your daily use.  Buying the proper amount and storing your CBD in a cool, dry place in the dark will ensure that you’re getting the most out of your 6° Wellness hemp extract throughout its duration of use. 

6° Wellness strives to provide you with clear, concise information for CBD use. We achieve this through science-based research using our products. We will continue to provide you with the most reliable and safe information possible on how you can incorporate CBD supplements into your daily life.  

Looking for more 6° Wellness Content? 

Website: www.sixdegreeswellness.com 

Instagram: @6degreeswellness

Podcast: CBD Deep Dive anchor.fm/6degrees 

References: 

Calvi, L., Pentimalli, D., Panseri, S., Giupponi, L., Gelmini, F., Beretta, G., Vitali, D., Bruno, M., Zilio, E., Pavlovic, R., Giorgi, A. 2018. Comprehensive quality evaluation of medical Cannabis Sativa L. inflorescence and macerated oil based on HS-SPME coupled to GC-MS and LC-HRMS (q-exactive orbitrap) approach. J. of Pharma. Biomed. Analysis, 150: 208-219.  

Casajuana Koguel, C., Lopez-Pelayo, H., Balcells-Olivero, M.M., Colom, J., Gual, A. 2018. Psychoactive constituents of cannabis and their clinical implications: a systemic review. Adicciones, 30(2):140-151.

Gallily, R., Yekhtin, Z., Hanus, L.O. 2018. The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 3(1): 282-290.

Pavlovic, R., Nenna, G., Calvi, L., Panseri, S., Borgonovo, G., Giupponi, L., Cannazza, Giorgi, A. 2018. Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations. Molecules, 23(5): 1230. 

Russo, E.B., Marcu, J. 2017. Chapter Three – Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads. Adv. In Pharmacol., 80: 67-134.  

Trofin, I.G., Dabija, G., Vaireanu, D., Filipescu, L. 2012. Long-term Storage and Cannabis Oil Stability. Rev. Chim., 63(3): 293-297.

 

 

 

 


howtofindcbd-1200x800.jpg

Disclaimer: Part of our mission is to always present the latest cannabinoid research; however, none of this is intended to represent the safety or efficacy of our products. These statements and our products have not been evaluated by the FDA, and our products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease. You should consult your physician or other health care professional before taking CBD to determine if it is right for your needs.

How to Find the Best Quality CBD Products 

Written By: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D.

A step by step guide on how to be a knowledgeable consumer of cannabidiol (CBD), and what you need to know about CBD products to ensure that you are choosing the product that is the best quality. 

Due to the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill, the cannabidiol (CBD) industry is growing at an exponential rate in the United States. With this rapid growth, more products like CBD capsules, tinctures, and gummies are becoming available on the market.  However, whether you are a veteran user or just getting started you should be aware that CBD products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or any other federal entity. Regulation of these products falls upon each individual company.  Due to this self regulation, there is high variability between the claimed CBD content and the actual CBD content of these products. In fact, in a 2017 study, it was found that 70% of tested CBD products were inaccurately labeled (Bonn-Miller et. al. 2017), meaning, that what was on the label was not in the bottle. Some studies have even found that CBD products actually contained less than 1% of the product’s claimed CBD content (Bonn-Miller et. al. 2017).  Further, it has been scientifically observed that the content of CBD in oil based products can change over time and is dependent on the type of oil that the CBD concentrate is resuspended in (Pavlovic et al. 2018).  

So, knowing that CBD products can be inaccurately labeled or vary over time; how do we separate out the good from the bad and the ugly?  And how do we truly find the best CBD oil tincture products? 

Step 1: Research the company and see how open they are.

The first thing you’ll want to address when you’re interested in a specific CBD product is; does the company making the product have an online presence? If you are unable to find a website or additional information on the company, you won’t be able to continue on to steps 2 or three of this process. If this is the case, I’d suggest starting your search over and looking for a new product.  However, if you can find the company’s website you’ll want to see if you can easily find their method of extraction and if the provide certificates of analysis from a third-party lab. Reputable 3rd party laboratories include Botanacor and ProVerde Labs. 3rd party testing (instead of testing from the company itself) is important to maintain the integrity of the testing, and proper standards. If you can find these two things, you can proceed to steps 2 and 3.  

Step 2: What method of extraction are they using to produce their CBD concentrate? 

There are multiple methods to extract CBD concentrate from the hemp plant, but not all of these methods are of equal quality. Some methods yield higher, more consistent concentrates but are more expensive to perform. While other methods are cheaper but sacrifice quality and content of the concentrate.  So what are the four most common extraction methods to obtain full spectrum CBD oil from the hemp plant? 

  1. Supercritical CO2 Extraction

Supercritical CO2 refers to CO2 having properties of both gaseous and liquid state. This supercritical solvent is the same compound as the CO2 in the air that we breathe in and out, but is much more concentrated.  In the extraction device, The supercritical CO2 is pumped through a chamber containing the hemp plant. The CO2, in a supercritical state, emulsifies the plant allowing for separation of the oil concentrate from the plant. The oil and CO2 are then moved to another chamber in which the CO2 is allowed to return to its gaseous state leaving only the concentrated oil behind.

This method produces high purity CBD concentrates, leaves behind no harmful residues and doesn’t damage the contents of the concentrate (i.e. cannabinoids and terpenes). However, because of the equipment needs for this process it is expensive to perform.   

  1. Steam Distillation

This method uses vaporized water to break up and dissolve the hemp plant, allowing the essential oils that contain CBD to be released. The water vapor and oil mixture is collected and then distilled in a manner similar to how alcoholic spirits are made, leaving the oil behind that contains the concentrate. 

 

While this method is more cost effective than CO2 extraction, this process is highly inefficient, yields lower concentrations of CBD, and can damage the active ingredients (i.e. cannabinoids and terpenes) if the water gets too hot.  

  1. Hydrocarbon Solvent Extraction

Hydrocarbons are refined solvents like heptane, hexane, petroleum, butane and propane. Yea, you read that right: petroleum and propane. Those are the exact same chemicals used to fuel your car and your gas grill.  While this process is fairly similar to CO2 extraction; there is one major difference. It’s difficult to fully evaporate these active solvents, and harmful residues can be left behind. These residues when consumed can produce extremely negative health effects.  For example, chronic exposure of hexane has been observed to produce neuro and liver toxicity (Spencer et al. 1980 & Goel et al. 1988).  

Again, while this method may produce highly concentrated extracts and is relatively inexpensive, it can contain harmful residues that produce negative health effects.  

  1. Natural Solvent Extraction

Natural solvents like olive oil and ethanol can also be used to extract CBD concentrates. Unlike hydrocarbons these solvents do not leave behind harmful residues. However, while this method is inexpensive and uses natural products; similar to steam distillation this process is largely inefficient and can have an undesirable “off taste” in the final product.  

What’s the best method of extraction?

In the CBD industry, CO2 extraction is viewed as the gold standard. It yields pure, highly concentrated uncontaminated extracts. While this method may be more expensive, it does mean you’re getting the most for your money, and you don’t have to worry about negative side-effects from residues.  

Step 3: Look to see if they openly provide product certificates of analysis.

As previously stated, CBD products in the U.S. are not regulated by the FDA or any other agency. Due to this, each individual company is responsible for determining what the actual content of their product is. How much CBD does the product actually contain? Does it have any harmful residues? Are there any heavy metals present? These are all questions that can be answered by having the company obtain a certificate of analysis from a third-party lab, like Botanacor or ProVerde Labs, as previously mentioned.   

The third-party lab that the company sends a sample of their product to should not be affiliated with the company in any way, and this ensures an unbiased analysis of the contents of the product.  This third-party lab then provides a certificate of analysis of this testing. If companies are confident in the quality of their product, they will freely provide these certificates of analysis on their website, and should be relatively easy to find.  However, even if the company is providing these certificates, there are still some tricks these companies use that you should be aware of. 

  1. They analyze the bulk concentrate, and not the individual products. Companies that offer multiple products often produce these products from the same batch of initial concentrate. And while this may tell you how pure the initial concentrate is, it won’t tell you the content of the specific product. If your certificate of analysis says 90-100% CBD… the certificate is meaningless, because you only know what the amount of cbd started with was, not what they put in your bottle. A good calculation of what percentage of CBD you should have in your bottle would be:

 

 

mg of CBD in the bottle/1000 

______________________   x 100 = % of CBD

 

ml of fluid in your bottle

 

A real-world example of this would be:

 

600mg of CBD in the bottle/1000

______________________         x 100 = 1% of CBD

 

60ml of MCT oil

 

 

Why might a company post inaccurate test results? Third-party testing is very expensive. And if a company is providing multiple products it might be tempting to analyze the initial concentrate rather than each individual product. While this may save the company money, it doesn’t give you any assurance as to the content of you specific product. 

What to look for? On the company’s website look at the certificate of analysis for multiple products. If all the products you look at have the same certificate with the same date and same concentrations odds are they’re using this trick. 

  1. They only had their first batch of product analyzed, but have not analyzed any successive batches.  In the CBD industry it is a desirable marketing technique to say you products are third-party verified, but as we stated previously this analysis is not cheap.  To give themselves a marketing edge, they’ll analyze their very first batch and post this online for their product, but in spite of producing new batches they don’t test them and just leave the initial report posted.  

What to look for? Look at the date of the analysis. If the analysis was done more than a year ago, this might be the case. In addition, every product you purchase should have a “lot number”, and that lot number should be reflected on the certificate of analysis. 

  1. Say the product is third-party tested, but don’t provide a certificate of analysis.  If a company claims that their products are third party verified but do not provide these certificates of analysis online it is most likely due to undesirable results.  This may be due to lower CBD content than claimed or the presence of harmful residues or heavy metals like lead. Or, may be due to high concentration of THC. In a study assessing the content of cannabinoids in CBD products, THC was detected up to a concentration of 6.43 mg/mL (Bonn-Miller et al. 2018). That means 1 milliliter of the product contained up to 6.43 mg of THC, or roughly equivalent to the typical amount of THC found in edibles sold at recreational dispensaries.    

What to look for? This one is pretty easy, if they say they do third-party testing but don’t provide the certificates, you may want to rethink your choice. 

Step 4: What type of oil is the CBD concentrate resuspended in? 

Many different oils are used to dilute the initial extract to the desired final concentration. Some of the most common oils used are hemp seed oil, olive oil, coconut oil and MCT oil.  When looking for oil-based products, we strongly recommend you purchase products that are suspended in MCT oil. The name of this oil stands for medium chain triglycerides and is refined from coconut oil.  The reason this oil stands out above the rest is because it has been scientifically shown to be the most stable over time. In a study published in 2018, that MCT oil when compared to the other oils contained no lipid oxidation products (Pavlovic et al. 2018), meaning your CBD lasts longer and doesn’t accumulate potentially hazardous byproducts as quickly as CBD in other oils.  So, how could this be?

Well, there are different lengths of fats (aka, triglycerides) present in oils: small, medium and long chain.  The chemical structure of small and long chain fats allows them to react with other chemicals leading to the breakdown or “lipid oxidation” of these chemicals. In the case of CBD products these small and long chain fats can react with CBD and cause it to degrade over time. That means the content of a CBD product with long and short chain fats will decrease overtime, resulting in you not getting the most from your product. However, the medium chain fats are not reactive and do not cause lipid oxidation, meaning your product will be more stable over time. MCT oil is refined from coconut oil but has any long or short chain fats removed.  So if you want to ensure that your product is as good on the last day of use as it was the first day, I suggest purchasing CBD products with MCT oil as the base.  

You’re probably thinking right now, “Wow Jonny, that’s a lot of work that I have to do just to find a high-quality CBD product. Is there a product that you can recommend that already meets all of these qualifications?”

Yes!!! Have no fear. The products provided by 6° Wellness meet all of the requirements we already discussed. At 6° Wellness, customers are our main focus, our staff has Ph.D scientists that have a deep understanding of the science of CBD and use scientific research to produce the highest quality products for you.  We are completely open, every product we sell has a unique batch I.D. on the bottom of the bottle. Simply enter this number into our certificates of analysis database and it will pop right up. Easy peasy! All of our concentrate is produced from organic hemp using CO2 extraction. This means you don’t have to worry about the presence of harmful residues and you are assured you’re getting the best product.  Finally, because we want to make sure you’re getting the most out of your product we use MCT oil in all our products. This means your CBD oil will be as fresh on its last day of use as it was on its first day. Plus you have the added benefit of knowing that because of our “1 for 1” model you’re helping someone in need with every purchase.

 

References:

Bonn-Miller, M., Loflin, M.J.E., Thomas, B.F., Marcu, J.P., Hyke, T., Vandrey, R. 2018. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA, 318(17): 1708. 

 

Goel, S.K., Rao, G.S., Pandya, K.P. 1988. Hepatotoxic effects elicited by n-hexane or n-heptane. J. App. Toxicol. 8(2): 81. 

 

Pavlovic, R., Nenna, G., Calvi, L., Panseri, S., Borgonovo, G., Giupponi, L., Cannazza, Cannazza, G., Giorgi, A. 2018. Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations. Molecules, 23(5): 1230. 

 

Spencer, P.S., Schaumburg, H.H., Sabri, M.I., Veronesi, B. 1980. The enlarging view of hexacarbon neurotoxicity. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 7(4): 279.

Photo by Burst on Unsplash

 


powerlifter-1200x800.jpg

Exercise and CBD

October 11, 2019 0

Disclaimer: Part of our mission is to always present the latest cannabinoid research; however, none of this is intended to represent the safety or efficacy of our products. These statements and our products have not been evaluated by the FDA, and our products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease. You should consult your physician or other health care professional before taking CBD to determine if it is right for your needs.

Exercise and CBD: What does the science say about CBD, and how it can affect your performance and active life-style? 

Written by: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D.

As an athlete, your lifestyle is largely focused on improving your performance both during training and in competition. Regardless of whether you’re a professional athlete like an elite triathlete, a casual competitor, or a weekend warrior, we all want to perform and feel our best.  It might not come as a big surprise, but your performance is dictated by more than just the quality of your weekly training sessions. The quality of your sleep, state of mind and ability to recover following training and competition all dictate your performance. Recently, there’s been a growing trend of athletes, of all levels of competition, advocating for the use of cannabis products, and in particular cannabidiol (CBD), as a part of their daily lifestyle.

What is CBD? 

The compound CBD is what’s known as phytocannabinoid.  The compound CBD is one of over 100+ compounds known as cannabinoids that are found within the cannabis plant, in particular hemp.  These chemicals are extracted from the hemp plant and concentrated into products like: CBD oils, topical creams, and CBD isolate (pure CBD).  The CBD in these products can then interact with the endocannabinoid system that is present in almost every tissue throughout the body. So this brings up the question; what effects does CBD actually have and how can you incorporate 6° Wellness CBD products into your active lifestyle?

CBD and Performance:

It comes as no surprise that how well you perform is based on more than just what you do the day of your competition or training. How well you perform is based on your capacity to recover (1), your quality of sleep (2,3) and your mental health (4). If you aren’t fully recovered from your previous training session or competition, you’ve been tossing and turning at night due to stress in your life, or performance anxiety is running amok, your performance is going to suffer. So how can the use of CBD affect your recovery, sleep, and mental health?

Recovery:

We’ve all been there, started a training session, felt great and were able to push ourselves beyond what we thought we were going to be able to do that day. It’s fantastic to push ourselves and leave the gym feeling accomplished, only to be hobbled by pain and soreness in the following days. This pain and soreness may even spill over to your next training session or competition, hindering your progress, or worse, missing your next competition entirely.  Contrary to popular belief, this muscle soreness known as DOMS (Delayed onset muscle soreness) is not the result of lactic acid build up or accumulation. It’s actually the result of the mechanical stress of exercise causing damage to your muscles, initiating an immune response which results in inflammation (swelling) of the tissue. This accumulation of excess fluid in the tissue causes pressure on muscles and nerves in the affected area resulting in pain, stiffness and reduced range of motion. Your first inclination might be to reach for common over the counter anti-inflammatory NSAID’s (ibuprofen) or painkillers (Tylenol) to help relieve your pain and swelling. However, as of late, more and more athletes are reaching for cannabis products, like CBD, for their pain relief and recovery. Cannabidiol has been observed to interact with the immune system through the endocannabinoid system and modulate the inflammatory response (5,6). Suggesting that the use of CBD may support a healthy inflammatory response and maintain normal exercise recovery.

Sleep:

We’ve all been there, had so many different things going on in our lives that we get bogged down with stress. Come bed-time, this stress prevents us from shutting off our brains and getting a restful night’s sleep. Getting high quality sleep on a nightly basis is an integral aspect not only of exercise recovery but mental wellness and overall health. The use of CBD has been observed to maintain healthy sleep habits and sleep architecture (7).

Mental Health and State of Mind:

As any athlete knows we train hard, devoting countless hours to our training and competitions.  That’s why it’s no surprise that when it comes to the competition itself, it’s not uncommon to get a little anxious.  Sometimes this pressure and anxiety can be so intense that it harms our performance or prevents us from competing entirely.  Recent evidence suggests that the use of CBD can help maintain mental health and related symptoms of anxiety (8,9).

Now that you know some of the observed effects of CBD on recovery, sleep, and mental health, it’s up to you to decide if you want to incorporate 6° Wellness products into your daily routine.  

What makes 6° Wellness different?

Admittedly, there are many hemp derived CBD companies that advocate and advertise their products for use in athletes and the physically active population. So, what makes 6° Wellness different? Well, for starters we are the only hemp derived CBD company in the world that has someone on staff that has a Ph.D. in Exercise Physiology. Our Director of Research, Dr. Jonny Lisano has three degrees in exercise science and exercise physiology and has specialized in researching cannabis use, immune function and performance in athletes since 2014.  Our Founder and CEO, Dr. Helena Yardley, has a dual Ph.D. in Neuroscience and Integrative Physiology as well, and has been involved in cannabinoid research for the last 7 years. Both Dr. Lisano and Dr. Yardley are advocates of using CBD products to support their active lifestyle, and use 6° Wellness products on a daily basis. 

Not only do we have experts on staff, but we also strive to continue to provide new and innovative research focused on our hemp derived CBD products and how they affect you. Plus, you have the added benefit of supporting our philanthropic “One for One” model. For every 6° Wellness product you purchase we donate to someone in need. 

Legality of Hemp derived CBD:

Hemp and marijuana are both members of the cannabis family. While marijuana is legal to varying extents for recreational purposes across the U.S., hemp is legal in all 50-states and associated U.S. territories thanks to the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill. Legally hemp is not allowed to have more than 0.3% THC by dry weight, so you won’t feel any intoxicating effects while using our products.  All of our products are third party verified and we provide all our certificates of analysis online. So you can rest assured and verify for yourself that our products meet these THC requirements in addition to not containing any harmful residues. 

WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency)

Athletes of a variety of levels are subject to being compliant with WADA standards and regulations. So, what is WADA’s stance on CBD? The use of CBD products in and out of competition is permitted by the current WADA guidelines. If you want to see for yourself just follow the link below and search for: Cannabidiol.

https://www.wada-ama.org/en/content/what-is-prohibited

The use of CBD is also permitted by the USADA (United States Anti-Doping Agency) as they follow the same guidelines enacted by WADA. 

What does the research say about what activities athletes and physically active individuals are using cannabis products with?

While there is currently no research available on how athletes and physically active individuals are using specifically hemp derived CBD products as a part of their life; there is one study (By our Director of Research) published in 2019 that assessed the types of activities that athletes and physically active individuals were using cannabis products with (10). 

The most popular activities to use these products with were: running, cycling, resistance training, yoga, golf, skiing/snowboarding, rock climbing and hockey/skating. However, in total participants in the study reported using in combination with over 26-unique activities (10)!

When were they using in relation to their training or physical activity?

The majority of participants in this study advocated for using both before and after their training or physical activity

What were some of the reasons these individuals were using these products?

When individuals were using products within an hour prior to starting their training or physical activity were to: support pain relief, support calming of the mind or relaxing, support performance or to support enjoyment (10).

After their physical activity these athletes and physically active individuals reported that they used to help support: relaxation, pain management, recovery, and sleep (10). 

How did these athletes perceive their use affected their performance?

In this study nearly 77% of participants reported that they felt the use of cannabis products with their training or physical activity had a positive effect on their performance. Only 3% felt that it had a negative effect (10).

How much CBD should I be taking?

Unfortunately, there isn’t currently any research on how much CBD you should be taking to support your physically active, healthy lifestyle or when you should be taking it. Until more research becomes available, we recommend starting out low at ~10 mg per dose (i.e. one full dropper of the 6° Wellness 600mg bottle) and adjusting as necessary until you experience your desired effects. You might find that you need a little more or a little less as you get more acquainted with our products. We recommend tracking how much you’re using, how often and how it makes you feel as a quick reference guide.  Keep in mind it could take anywhere from 30-90 minutes to begin experiencing the short-term effects and a few days of consistent use to feel the prolonged effects. 

Suggestions from our staff on how they use 6° Wellness products to support their active lifestyle:

The tried and true tincture:

The easiest way to use 6° Wellness products is using the oil as a sublingual tincture. Simply fill the dropper to the desired level and gently disperse underneath your tongue. Just be careful to not touch the dropper to your mouth, you don’t want to contaminate the rest of the bottle.

Morning coffee:

Fill the 6° Wellness dropper to your desired level and disperse into your cup of coffee prior to brewing or pouring it in. For best results we recommend mixing with a small amount of creamer

Post-workout smoothie:

We all know it’s important to replenish and restore nutrients following a workout. One of our favorite and delicious ways to consume 6° Wellness products is to simply add it in to your post-workout smoothie. Add your desired amount as you would any of your other ingredients, blend and you’re good to go!

Bowl of Oatmeal:

If you’re not a coffee drinker, or you’re just not a fan of smoothies try adding it to your bowl of oatmeal. We suggest cooking your oats first then afterwards adding in your 6° Wellness product and stirring it in. You won’t even notice it’s there!

Keep in mind!

Don’t forget, that because 6° Wellness products are suspended in MCT oil they won’t mix very well with water-based products (hence why we suggest using creamer with your coffee).  

Jonny Lisano, Ph.D

JONNY LISANO, Ph.D.

Jonny received his Ph.D. from the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) in Exercise Physiology.  During his time at (UNC) he and his advisor established the first cannabis and exercise performance laboratory in the nation.  Jonny’s early research pertaining to cannabis focused on the assessment of how the long-term use of cannabis products in physically active individuals affected parameters of overall health and exercise performance.  As he progressed into the field of cannabis research his focused shifted from exercise performance to that of how CBD affects immune function in physically active individuals who are using cannabis products.

Jonny has always been an advocate for living a healthy lifestyle and believes CBD can be an integral part of that.  His focus at 6° Wellness is to provide and explain the most current scientific knowledge pertaining to cannabis in a way everyone can understand, and providing recommendations on how the products we offer can fit into your lifestyle.

In his free time Jonny enjoys training for competitive obstacle course races, hiking the beautiful Colorado backcountry, and partaking in the occasional beer from the local craft beer scene.

References:

  1. Lee EC, Fragala MS, Kavouras SA, Queen RM, Pryor JL, Casa DJ. Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2017 October 01;31(10):2920-37.
  2. Watson AM. Sleep and Athletic Performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2017 December 01;16(6):413-8.
  3. Fullagar HH, Skorski S, Duffield R, Hammes D, Coutts AJ, Meyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med. 2015 February 01;45(2):161-86.
  4. Raglin JS. Psychological factors in sport performance: the Mental Health Model revisited. Sports Med. 2001;31(12):875-90.
  5. Kozela E, Pietr M, Juknat A, Rimmerman N, Levy R, Vogel Z. Cannabinoids Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Inhibit the Lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-κB and Interferon-β/STAT Proinflammatory Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2010 Jan 15,;285(3):1616-26.
  6. Philpott HT, OʼBrien M, McDougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017 Dec;158(12):2442-51.
  7. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18-041.
  8. Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM, Manzanares J, Marmar CR. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):825-36.
  9. Lee JLC, Bertoglio LJ, Guimaraes FS, Stevenson CW. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 2017 October 01;174(19):3242-56.
  10. Lisano J, Phillips K, Smith J, Barnes M, Stewart L. Patterns and Perceptions of Cannabis Use with Physical Activity. Cannabis. 2019;2(2):151-64.

jon-tyson-hhq1Lxtuwd8-unsplash-1200x1200.jpg

What is CBD

August 14, 2019 2

Everything you need to know about CBD and the role of the endocannabinoid system

Written by: Dr. Jonny Lisano, Ph.D. 

Everything you need to know about CBD and the role of the endocannabinoid system

You might have overheard or had conversations with friends and family about CBD, seen posts on social media or even currently use CBD yourself.  But what is it really, and what does it do? The compound CBD, also known as cannabidiol, is one of over 100 identified cannabinoids that naturally occur within the cannabis plant. Cannabinoids like CBD work through our endocannabinoid system.  This system, while relatively new in terms of its discovery, has receptors in tissues throughout the body and is implicated in tissue to tissue communication.  The two most common sources of cannabinoids are marijauna and hemp. Both these plants belong to the family known as Cannabaceae.  These two plants, while genetically similar, were selectively bred to express varying levels of cannabinoids, like CBD and THC.  Marijuana is typically defined as having a high THC content and moderate CBD content, while hemp is classified as having less than 0.3% THC and a variable amount of CBD.  While the legal status of marijuana varies from state to state the 2018 Farm Bill allows for cultivation, production and distribution of hemp derived products in all 50 states.

 

Cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, exert effects on tissues throughout the body through the endocannabinoid system; with receptors for this system dispersed to varying degrees within almost every tissue in the body (Joshi & Onaivi 2019).  The endocannabinoid system was first discovered in the late 1980’s when compounds within cannabis, later to be identified as cannabinoids, were observed to interact with receptors within the brain (Devane et al. 1988 ).  Thus, these receptors were termed: cannabinoid receptors.  Research in this area quickly progressed and identified two cannabinoid receptors that make up the majority of the endocannabinoid system: the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors.  The CB1 receptor is primarily found within the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) while the CB2 receptor is primarily found in tissues that are not part of the central nervous system (periphery) like muscle (Zhang et al. 2019), fat (O’Sullivan 2012; Zhang et al. 2014), skin (Wang et al. 2016) and other organs.  THC is considered an activator of both the CB1 and CB2 receptors (Tham et al. 2019).  The actions of THC on the CB1 receptor, which as we previously discussed is primarily located in the central nervous system, are believed to be the main reason individuals experience intoxication, or a “high” feeling, when using products containing large amounts of THC.

 

CBD, while extremely similar in structure to THC, has one key structural difference that does not allow CBD to activate the CB1 receptor or produce intoxicating effects. Until recently, CBD was believed to activate the CB2 receptor, but new literature from the scientific community suggests this might not be the case.  Instead, some new research suggests that CBD is rather known as an allosteric inhibitor of the CB1 and CB2 receptors (Chung et al. 2019, Martinez-Panilla et al. 2017).  This means that while CBD can bind to both receptors it inhibits them rather than activating them.  This prevents other molecules like THC from activating the CB1 and CB2 receptors. However, this is a point of spirited debate within the scientific community as there are studies supporting the claims that CBD does indeed activate the CB2 receptor (Tham et al. 2019). Now you’re probably thinking, “Well if CBD doesn’t activate the CB2 receptor like everyone says, why am I taking it?”. Worry not… because it does a lot more than that. To make things more complicated, it turns out that phytocannabinoids also activate a number of receptors outside the traditional CB1 and CB2 receptors, including (but certainly not limited to) GPR55 (Irving et al. 2017), 5HT-1A (Sonego et al. 2016), PPARa (O’Sullivan 2012; Zhang et al. 2014), PPARg (O’sullivan 2012), and many many more, making the “endocannabinoid system” much more complex than previously thought. It’s possible that CBD primarily works through one or more of these other receptors, possibly activating CB2 through action upon a different system. Time, and much, much more science, will tell. 

Looking for more 6° Wellness Content? 

Website: www.sixdegreeswellness.com 

Instagram: @6degreeswellness

Podcast: CBD Deep Dive anchor.fm/6degrees 

References:

Chung, H., Fierro, A., Pessoa-Mahana, C.D. 2019. Cannabidiol binding and negative allosteric modulation at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor in the presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: An In Silico study. PLoS One, 14(7).  

Devane, W.A., Dysarz, F.A., Johnson, M.R., Melvin, L.S., Howlett, A.C. 1988 Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Mol. Pharmacol. 34: 605-613.  

Irving, A., Abdulrazzag, G., Chan, S.L.F., Penman, J., Harvey, J., Alexander, S.P.H. 2017. Cannabinoid Receptor-Related Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors. Adv. Pharmacol, 80: 223-247.  

Joshi, N., Onaivi, E.S. 2019. Endocannabinoid System Components: Overview and Tissue Distribution. In: Bukiya A. (eds) Recent Advances in Cannabinoid Physiology and Pathology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 1162. Springer, Cham

Martinez-Pinilla, E., Varani, K., Reye-Resina, I., Angelats, E., Vincenzi, F., Ferreiro-Vera, C., et. al. 2017. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors. Front Pharmacol.  

O’Sullivan, S.E. 2012. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors: an update and review of the physiological relevance. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews.

Sonego, A.B., Gomes, F.V., Del Bel, E.A., Guimaraes, F.S. 2016. Cannabidiol attenuates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum via 5-HT1A receptors in mice. Behav. Brain Res. 309: 22-28.

Tham, M., Yilmaz, O., Alaverdashvili, M., Kelly, M.E.M., Denovan-Wright, E.M., Laprairie, R.B. 2019. Allosteric and orthosteric pharmacology of cannabidiol and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl at the type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol, 176(10): 1455-1469. 

Wang, L.L., Zhao, R., Li, J.Y., Li, S.S., Liu, M., Wang, M., et al. 2016 Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor attenuates inflammation, fibrogenesis, and promotes re-epithelialization during skin wound healing. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 786: 128-136.

Zhang, M., Zhang, M., Wang, L., Yu, T., Jiang, S., Jiang, P., et al. 2019 Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptor protects skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury partly via Nrf2 signaling. Life Sci., 230: 55-67.

Zhang, Y.F., Yuan, Z.Q., Song, D.G., Zhou, X.H., Wang, Y.Z. 2014. Effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) on lipid accumulation by transcriptional control of CPT1A and CPT1B. Anim. Genet., 45(1): 38-47. 


©2019 6º Wellness All rights reserved